Waikoloa, HI, USA
Sunday, December 10 - Thursday, December 14Abstract: Introduction: Sporting goods and historic weapons use impact resistant wood such as walnut and maple, yet the mechanism of their impact resistance is poorly understood. Other impact resistant biomaterials feature unique microstructures that dissipate great dynamic loads, such as the spiraling chitin layers (bouligand structures) found in mantis shrimp clubs. In this work drop-weight testing, finite element analysis (FEA), and 3D printing were used to investigate whether impact resistant wood species featured a common structure that distinguished them from non-impact resistant species. This work is supported by a Multi-University Research Initiative through the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR-FA9550-15-1-0009). Methods: Nine species of wood at ~12% moisture content were selected. Of these some were known for use in impact resistant applications while others were not. Drop-tower testing was used to determine impact resistance according to a modified ASTM-D7136/D7136 M-07 procedure. Wood microstructure was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the microstructures. These were translated into simplified models for FEA which revealed how the anatomy of each wood contributed to its impact response. The FEA models were then 3D printed to test the effect of vessel arrangement for efficient impact-absorbing structures. Results: Drop-weight testing revealed some wood species (black walnut, hard maple, African mahogany) to be as impact resistant as non-hydrated ram horn. White ash was shown to fail at low impact energies but with minimal shattering behavior, clarifying its use in baseball bats. Statistical analysis showed that while quasistatic work to failure can be predicted by density alone, impact energy of failure is more accurately predicted when vessel distribution and density are both accounted for, with uniform vessel distributions providing the most dynamic mechanical efficiency. FEA and 3D printed samples isolated the geometric effects of the vessels in simulations and physical tests, respectively.
Sunday, December 3 - Thursday, December 7Abstract: Pharmacokinetics of citalopram and escitalopram in HIV-infected and uninfected adolescents Escitalopram (S-citalopram) is FDA-approved in adolescents \'e2\'89\'a512 years, while citalopram (R,S-citalopram) is only indicated for adults, though it is used off-label for children and adolescents. To date, no pharmacokinetic studies of citalopram/escitalopram in HIV-infected youth have been published. Citalopram/escitalopram are metabolized by CYP 3A4 and 2C19, which can be induced or inhibited by antiretrovirals such as efavirenz and ritonavir. Assessing pharmacokinetics and dosing in the prescribed population is important for understanding safety, efficacy and potential drug-drug interactions. This study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetics of citalopram/escitalopram in HIV-infected youth and to compare pharmacokinetics between HIV-infected and uninfected groups. International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trial (IMPAACT) P1080 was a multicenter, cross-sectional study evaluating psychiatric and antiretroviral medication concentrations in HIV-1 infected and uninfected youth < 25 years, including participants receiving either citalopram or escitalopram with efavirenz or ritonavir or no antiretrovirals. Once daily doses ranged from 10-40 mg for citalopram and 5-20 mg for escitalopram. Per participant, six plasma samples were collected at pre-dose, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours post-dose. Plasma concentrations of total citalopram (R,S-citalopram) or S-citalopram were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Dose-dependent pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC and concentrations) were normalized across all participants to a 10 mg escitalopram dose as follows. For participants taking citalopram, total R,S-citalopram concentrations/doses were divided by 2 to obtain equivalent S-citalopram concentrations/doses. (Citalopram 20 mg approximately equals R-citalopram 10 mg plus S-citalopram 10 mg.) The calculated S-citalopram concentrations for participants taking citalopram, and observed S-citalopram concentrations for participants taking escitalopram were then normalized to a 10 mg escitalopram dose. For example, for a participant taking 5 mg escitalopram, concentrations were multiplied by 2. Pharmacokinetic parameters for all participants are summarized as S-citalopram concentrations, normalized to a 10 mg dose. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests compared parameters between groups. Preliminary analysis included 24 participants total, receiving citalopram (n=15) or escitalopram (n=9), with HIV-1 (n=11) or uninfected (n=13). Average (standard deviation) weight and age were 77 (24) kg and 21 (2) years. HIV-infected participants were majority male and Black (7/11 male; 7 Black, 2 White, 2 Unknown) in contrast to uninfected participants (3/13 male; 1 Black, 9 White, 1 Asian, 2 Unknown). The mean S-citalopram dose was 0.15 (0.09) mg/kg in HIV-infected and 0.20 (0.10) mg/kg in uninfected participants (p=0.19). One uninfected participant receiving escitalopram had no measurable S-citalopram concentrations and was not included in the pharmacokinetic summary. The median (range) S-citalopram Cl/F, Vd/F, and t1/2 were 29 L/hr (11-61), 886 L (247-2852), and 15.1 hours (9.5-88.4) for HIV-1 infected, and 28 L/hr (12-58), 601 L (191-1688), and 20.7 hours (6.9-39.0) for uninfected participants. The median (range) dose-normalized S-citalopram AUC0-24, Cmax and C0 were 350 ng*h/mL (165-881), 21.5 ng/mL (12.0-56.8), and 16.7 ng/mL (6.0-26.0) for HIV-1 infected, and 358 ng*h/mL (172-848), 23.1 ng/mL (10.4-57.6), and 10.8 ng/mL (2.6-35.9) for uninfected participants. No parameters were different between groups. One HIV-1 infected participant receiving concomitant efavirenz had S-citalopram pharmacokinetic values within 25% of those receiving ritonavir. S-citalopram pharmacokinetics in youth living with HIV taking either citalopram or escitalopram along with either ritonavir- or efavirenz-containing antiretroviral regimens are similar to those observed in uninfected youth. While citalopram and escitalopram are metabolized by CYP 3A4 and 2C19, concomitant administration with ritonavir (a CYP 3A4 inhibitor and 2C19 inducer) or efavirenz (a CYP 3A4 inducer and 2C19 inhibitor) did not appear to influence the exposure to S-citalopram.
New Orleans, LA, USA
Monday, December 11 - Friday, December 15Abstract: We present new constraints on elastic properties of the marine sediments and crust surrounding the Hawaiian Islands derived from seafloor compliance measurements. We analyze long-period seismic and pressure data collected during the Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Mantle Experiment [Laske et al, 2009], a deployment consisting of nearly 70 broadband ocean-bottom seismometers with an array aperture of over 1000 kilometers. Our results are supported by previous reflection & refraction studies and by direct sampling of the crust from regional drilling logs. We demonstrate the importance of simultaneously modeling density, compressional velocity, and shear velocity, the former two of which are often ignored during compliance investigations. We find variable sediment thickness and composition across the Hawaiian Swell, with the thickest sediments located within the Hawaiian Moat. Improved resolution of near-surface structure of the Hawaiian Swell is crucially important to improve tomographic images of the underlying lithosphere and asthenosphere and to address outstanding questions regarding the size, source, and location of the hypothesized mantle plume.
Alexander Gamero Garrido
Monday, October 30 - Friday, November 3Abstract: Product vendors and vulnerability researchers work with the same underlying artifacts, but can be motivated by goals that are distinct and, at times, disjoint. This potential for conflict, coupled with the legal instruments available to product vendors (e.g., EULAs, DMCA, CFAA, etc.) drive a broad concern that there are "chilling effects" that dissuade vulnerability researchers from vigorously evaluating product security. Indeed, there are well-known examples of legal action taken against individual researchers. However, these are inherently anecdotal in nature and skeptics of the chilling-effects hypothesis argue that there is no systematic evidence to justify such concerns. This paper is motivated by precisely this tussle. We present some of the first work to address this issue on a quantitative and empirical footing, illuminating the sentiments of both product vendors and vulnerability researchers. First, we canvas a range of product companies for explicit permission to conduct security assessments and thus characterize the degree to which the broad software vendor community is supportive of vulnerability research activities and how this varies based on the nature of the researcher. Second, we conduct an online sentiment survey of vulnerability researchers to understand the extent to which they have abstract concerns or concrete experience with legal threats and the extent to which this mindset shapes their choices.
Sunday, December 10 - Thursday, December 14Abstract: Skin is the outermost layer of the body of mammals. It acts as a protective barrier against external agents such as heat, light, infection, and injury. It must be able to withstand tremendous deformations and mitigate propagations of tears that can occur during growth, movement, or injuries. Skin is a non-linear, anisotropic, viscoelastic material that has the remarkable ability to adapt to the mechanics of its environment. Thus, understanding and characterizing its mechanical behavior can be crucial in contexts ranging from surgery, forensics, biomimicry, to engineering of protective gear, for example.\'c2\'a0 \'c2\'a0\'c2\'a0 It is believed that the dermis, skin\'e2\'80\'99s median and thickest layer, mostly accounts for the mechanical tensile response. It is majorly composed of variably oriented layers of wavy collagen fibers (~60% of the dermis\'e2\'80\'99 volume), partially jointed by transverse elastin fibers (~4%), embedded in a viscous matrix called the ground substance. Our research proposes some new insight into the multiscale aspects of skin\'e2\'80\'99s viscoelasticity through a top to bottom physical modelling approach, based on a deformation model of S- shaped collagen fibers, recently developed by our group.\'c2\'a0 \'c2\'a0\'c2\'a0\'c2\'a0\'c2\'a0 A modified Generalized Maxwell model is used to match experimental data from a set of tensile tests that we conducted on porcine skin. The obtained parameters define the macroscale behaviour of the dermis. SEM and TEM are used to describe the geometry of collagen fibers. In order to quantify processes such as shearing and sliding within the material, the model is later refined via two distinct microscale approaches: a finite element model of wavy fibers in a viscous matrix, and a molecular dynamics coarse grained model of the same geometry with discrete crosslinking.\'c2\'a0 \'c2\'a0\'c2\'a0 These models give us a clearer picture of the deformation mechanisms occurring in skin, highlighting its remarkable stretchability and tear resistance, while also complementing the database of skin\'e2\'80\'99s mechanical properties.
Friday, November 10 - Tuesday, November 14Abstract: Purpose: Prophylactic mastectomy, whether bilateral or contralateral, is increasing in prevalence. The survival benefit of undergoing prophylactic mastectomy has recently been called into question. We aimed to investigate differences in the risk for early complications between patients undergoing therapeutic versus prophylactic mastectomy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of female patients undergoing total mastectomy between 1998 and 2011 was performed using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS). Patients were included if they had a diagnosis of breast cancer or increased risk, and underwent total mastectomy. Multivariable logistic regression was completed to determine the impact of mastectomy type on immediate postoperative complications. Mastectomy type was defined as 1) unilateral, 2) contralateral prophylactic, or 3) bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. Patient, hospital, and procedural characteristics were included as covariates. Because bilateral prophylactic mastectomy patients (48 +/- 13 years) were significantly younger than other mastectomy patients (60 +/- 15 years)(p<0.001), we performed a follow-up sub-analysis comparing only the contralateral and bilateral prophylactic mastectomy patients. Given the significant age and size differences between these groups, we used 1:1 propensity score matching to match patients based on age, and then utilized the same logistic regression model previously described. Results: In a multivariable logistic regression model, patients who underwent bilateral prophylactic mastectomy had an increased risk of in-hospital postoperative complications relative to contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (OR=1.39, p<0.001) and unilateral mastectomy (OR=1.37, p<0.001) patients. There was no difference between contralateral prophylactic and unilateral mastectomy patients. Additionally, autologous reconstruction (OR=3.47, p<0.001) and age 60+ (OR=1.36, p<0.001) were associated with increased complications. In the sub-analysis of age-matched bilateral mastectomy patients (contralateral prophylactic vs. bilateral prophylactic), bilateral prophylactic patients had a significantly increased risk of complications (OR=1.66, p<0.001). Conclusions: Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy was found to have an independently higher risk for immediate postoperative complications relative to other types of total mastectomy. With recent data showing the lack of previously suspected survival advantage of prophylactic mastectomy, there may be added risk without clear benefit from these procedures. Further investigations are warranted to examine the cause of this difference, as well as long term outcomes and patient satisfaction, both of which are major considerations in breast cancer care.
Wednesday, November 29 - Sunday, December 3Abstract: The United States is known worldwide as the leader in the agrifood industry. California, in particular, has huge economic and political influence as it possesses the premier food and agricultural system and, as a state, has the world\'e2\'80\'99s sixth-largest economy. Because of this, California\'e2\'80\'99s agrifood system is assuming a leadership role in the domains of sustainable agriculture and community food security, as well (Allen 2004). These successes, however, have been built on the back of migrant labor, exploitative industrialized working conditions, and capitalist grabs for profit and greater food production. All this while farmers and farmworkers continue to hold some of the most precarious positions in society, ironically being some of those most in danger of food insecurity. That said, California also paves the way in community food security policies, initiatives, and organizations, highlighting the inherent contradictions within and between the state and civil society. Narrowing our scope within California, San Diego is known for its beaches, museums, and microbreweries, but it is also a border county filled with more than 6,000 farmers on 6,565 small family farms, 65% of which are nine or fewer acres in size (San Diego Farm Bureau). Its Mediterranean-like climate makes it an ideal place to grow agricultural crops. Drawing from this idyllic environment, farmers markets proliferate San Diego neighborhoods, with at least one market held somewhere in the city every day of the week. Community and urban gardens also act as a way to bring fresh and local produce to city members, either out of necessity in lower-income, food deserted neighborhoods or as a sign of affluence and leisure in the richer enclaves. This paper serves as an overview of these sustainable agriculture and community food security scenes in San Diego county, speaking to farmers, hipsters, locavores, activists, foodies, the poor, and people of color in disparate and often conflicting ways. I aim to provide a cursory analysis of the interactions, successes, and erasures of sustainable agrifood organizations in the area while also placing these movements within the history of such practices in California and The United States. References: Allen, Patricia. 2004. Together at the Table: Sustainability and Sustenance in the American Agrifood System. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press. San Diego Farm Bureau. 2017. \'e2\'80\'9cSan Diego Country Agriculture Facts\'e2\'80\u157 . San Diego Farm Bureau website. Accessed April 17, 2017. https://www.sdfarmbureau.org/SD-Ag/Ag-Facts.php.
New Orleans, Louisiana
Thursday, January 4 - Saturday, January 6Abstract: This paper proposes a novel mechanism through which media bias can influence public opinion. Although a rich literature shows that members of the media can selectively report and frame the stories that they write, researchers typically assume that journalists do not affect the underlying process through which newsworthy content is generated. In contrast, we analyze situations in which members of the press directly influence the stories they report. This is particularly acute in the context of interviews with prominent politicians, where minor changes in question tone and content can dramatically alter public perception of the interview subject. Using an original dataset of more than 250,000 questions posed to American presidents, White House press secretaries, and other administration officials, we find evidence that reporters systematically change the tone of their questions based on the party affiliation and personal characteristics of the respondent.
Sunday, November 19 - Tuesday, November 21Abstract: The dynamics of polymeric fluids exhibit rich and sometimes counter-intuitive behaviors, which can be traced back to the complex conformations of polymer molecules in shear flow. The tumbling of rigid bodies in shear flow at low Reynolds number has been understood since the pioneering work of Jeffery. The effect of polymer chain flexibility, however, has non-trivial consequences in this classical problem. Here we study the dynamics of actin filaments, which are semi-flexible filaments usually found in the cell cytoplasm, in an externally applied simple shear flow. We model these inextensible filaments using Euler-Bernoulli beam and use nonlocal slender body theory (SBT) in the presence of Brownian fluctuations to probe their dynamics, and compare our numerical simulations to microfluidic experiments. We systematically explore the parameter space by varying the length of the polymer and changing the shear rate. A series of conformational transitions is observed with increasing shear rate, from quasi-periodic tumbling to nontrivial buckling regimes due to the destabilizing effect of compressive viscous forces, and physical mechanisms are proposed for these transitions.
Monday, November 6 - Friday, November 10Abstract: Nassau Grouper (Epinephelus striatus) populations have declined throughout the Caribbean largely due to overexploitation of fish spawning aggregations (FSAs). The FSA off the west end of Little Cayman Island is one of the largest remaining of the species and has dramatically increased in size since protections took effect in 2003. However, it remains unclear how this increased reproductive capacity will support population recovery and productivity via recruitment. Understanding the mechanisms underlying recruitment is important to linking changes in adult numbers to future, long-term population status. Here, we use novel in situ plankton imaging to investigate the fine-scale dispersal of Nassau Grouper eggs, as well as the ocean conditions and plankton community of the waters they were spawned into. We successfully followed one cohort in February 2016 (4 hours) and three cohorts in February 2017 (16, 36, and 6 hours), mapping the density of eggs at fine spatial scale (10s of meters horizontal, 1s of meters vertical). We observed eggs from cohort #2 in 2017 hatching into yolk-sac larvae. Ocean conditions at the FSA were anomalously calm in 2017, and all five drifters released with cohort #2 stayed within 2km of Little Cayman Island and grounded on the reef. Finally, we develop and evaluate the ability of a physical advection-diffusion model to calculate expected egg concentrations in time and space. Our work to develop mechanistic understanding of how eggs survive to become spawning adults will allow for appropriate management to help protect this species.
Wednesday, November 29 - Sunday, December 3Abstract: The creeks of the San Mateo Point watershed empty into the Pacific Ocean at the intersection of San Onofre State Beach/Park, Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, and a famous group of surf breaks known as Trestles in Southern California. This site brings into view several transecting borders: human and non-human, land and water, public and private, and environmental, recreational and militaristic. In this paper, I explore the disjunctive intersection of these borders in the production of what I term the \'e2\'80\'9cTrestles surfscape.\'e2\'80\u157 The term \'e2\'80\'9csurfscape\'e2\'80\u157 reworks Appadurai's \'e2\'80\'9cglobalscapes\'e2\'80\u157 with LeFebvre\'e2\'80\'99s \'e2\'80\'9cproduction of space,\'e2\'80\u157 and the more recent calls for an \'e2\'80\'9camphibious anthropology\'e2\'80\u157 and \'e2\'80\'9cnew materialism\'e2\'80\u157 by Ren\'c3\'a9 ten Bos and Jane Bennet, respectively. These constructs help deconstruct borders that sustain a relationship between (non)humans and their lived environments. Within this theoretical framework, I examine how the disjunctive interests of a complex set of actors, including the Juane\'c3\'b1o Band of Mission Indians, Acjachemen Nation, climate change environmentalists, surfers, the global surfing industry, and the military combined to \'e2\'80\'9cSave Trestles\'e2\'80\u157 from construction of an eight-lane toll road. They claimed the sixteen-mile route would destroy economic, ecological and cultural resources, including the surf breaks. The campaign brought into view the fluid yet contentious nature of these borders. Stakeholders declared Trestles was \'e2\'80\'9csaved forever\'e2\'80\u157 in 2016 based on a legal settlement that prohibits any future transportation projects through the state beach/park. I call into question the success of the campaign and argue that the impact of rising sea levels is Trestles\'e2\'80\'99 ultimate threat.
Byeong Keun Kang
Tuesday, November 14 - Thursday, November 16Abstract: Hand segmentation for hand-object interaction is a necessary preprocessing step in many applications such as augmented reality, medical application, and human-robot interaction. However, typical methods are based on color information which is not robust to objects with skin color, skin pigment difference, and light condition variations. Thus, we propose hand segmentation method for hand-object interaction using only a depth map. It is challenging because of the small depth difference between a hand and objects during an interaction. To overcome this challenge, we propose the two-stage random decision forest (RDF) method consisting of detecting hands and segmenting hands. To validate the proposed method, we demonstrate results on the publicly available dataset of hand segmentation for hand-object interaction. The proposed method achieves high accuracy in short processing time comparing to the other state-of-the-art methods.
Thursday, November 2 - Sunday, November 5Abstract: BACKGROUND: Doc-4-A-Day was founded in the mid-1990s by the Latino Medical Student Association (LMSA) to engage youth from under-resourced communities of Southeastern San Diego in science and medicine. For many students, Doc-4-A-Day is their first real exposure to higher education, science, and future healthcare careers. With each event, 50+ medical students mobilize to engage over 100 high school students in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, nutrition, and pharmacology workshops in case-based learning. This past year, we targeted middle school students from the Fallbrook community to explore the effect of earlier exposure, which initiated the founding of Junior D4AD. AIM: Our goals were to (1) Assess the success of D4AD in sparking a science interest in disadvantaged middle and high school students, and (2) Explore demographical differences in students\'e2\'80\'99 interest in science and self-perception as a scientist. METHODS: Surveys with questions regarding students\'e2\'80\'99 demographic information (race/ethnicity, gender, grade), interest in health careers (\'e2\'80\'9cAre you interested in a career in health sciences?\'e2\'80\uc0\u157 ), self-perception as a scientist (\'e2\'80\'9cDo you see yourself as a scientist?\'e2\'80\u157 ), and total number and number of advanced science classes taken were administered to students at the beginning and end of each event. Items were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Associations between students\'e2\'80\'99 interest levels before and after the event, differences in racial/ethnic groups, and differences in genders were determined using two-sample or paired t-tests. RESULTS A total of 159 students completed the surveys; 114 from the high school cohort (HS) and 45 from the junior high cohort (JH). Table 1 shows the demographic breakdown of students who participated including gender and race/ethnicity. In both high school and junior high cohorts, the majority of students identified as Hispanic/Latino (62.2% HS, 68.9% JH), and the majority of students identified as female (57% HS, 55.6% JH). Figure 1 shows that in both cohorts there was an increase in science interest level following the event. However, this interest was significant only in the junior high cohort (p-value=0.153 HS, 0.018 JH). Figure 2 illustrates for both junior high and high school cohorts, females have a significantly higher science interest than males (p-value=0.041 HS, 0.009 JH). It is seen in Figure 3 that for the junior high cohort, females have higher self-perception as a scientist, whereas in high school, males have higher self-perception as a scientist. However both observations were not significant (p-value=0.671 HS, 0.324 JH). For the high school cohort, females and males took similar number of science classes (p-value=0.751), however females took approximately three times as many advanced science classes (p-value=0.017) shown in Table 2. Student science interest level divided by race/ethnicity for both cohorts is illustrated in Figure 4. For the high school cohort, compared to white counterparts, interest levels of other races/ethnicities were not significantly different. For the junior high cohort, compared to white counterparts, Hispanic/Latino (p-value=0.046) and Mixed (p-value=0.002) students had higher science interest. Student self-perception as a scientist divided by race/ethnicity for both cohorts is illustrated in Figure 5. For the high school cohort, compared to white counterparts, Hispanic/Latino (p-value=0.001) and Asian/Pacific Islander (p-value=0.026) had significantly lower scores. For junior high cohort, compared to white counterparts, self-perception levels of other races/ethnicities were not significantly different. CONCLUSION Doc-4-A-Day is an educational intervention that fosters minority students\'e2\'80\'99 interest in sciences, with the long-term goal of combating the shortage of underrepresented health professionals in the fields of medicine and pharmacy. Thus far, our survey-based research has demonstrated (1) how educational programs can spark interest among students from underprivileged backgrounds to explore health careers, especially in early settings, and (2) the roles gender and race can play in a student\'e2\'80\'99s intrapersonal experience in education.
Saturday, November 11 - Wednesday, November 15Abstract: Though interactions between high-level perception and memory are commonplace in real life, they are typically studied separately in neuroscience. However, recent experimental findings have indicated that processes dependent on both long-term memory and short-term memory significantly alter high-level perception in complex manners. Specifically, the classical perceptual phenomenon of Beauty in Averageness (BiA), in which a face morphed from two original faces is typically judged by humans to be more attractive than the originals, significantly diminishes when the original faces are recognizable (based on long-term memory), or when the attractiveness judgment is preceded by a judgment of the similarity of the morph to the two original faces (based on working memory). A previous qualitative account of these results hypothesized that a negative affect associated with the difficulty of \'e2\'80\'9cdisfluency\'e2\'80\uc0\u157 of categorizing morphed faces (either explicitly by being asked to make similarity judgments, or implicitly by automatically matching morphed faces to well-known faces) is misattributed by subjects to be associated with the attractiveness perception, thus resulting in a diminution of the BiA. However, this disfluency account cannot explain why performing the similarity judgment results in a significant increase in the perceived attractiveness of the original faces, nor the original BiA effect. Here, we propose a statistical theory of how humans use a latent low-dimensional representation of intrinsically high-dimensional data (e.g. faces) to efficiently perform high-level perceptual judgments (attractiveness rating), utilize working memory to compare such items (similarity judgment) and encode and recall such items in long-term memory (celebrity recognition). This model explains both the original BiA effect, as well as its modulation by short-term and long-term memory-dependent categorization processes. It also gives hints as to the nature of the neural representation of complex sensory stimuli, as well as its transformation under top-down modulation of concurrent cognitive processes.
Monday, October 23 - Friday, October 27Abstract: I am gonna present a paper on data collection of music segmentation problem, below is the paper abstract. "Identifying boundaries in music structural segmentation is a well studied music information retrieval problem. The goal is to develop algorithms that automatically identify segmenting time points in music that closely matches human annotated data. The annotation itself is challenging due to its subjective nature, such as the degree of change that constitutes a boundary, the location of such bound- aries, and whether a boundary should be assigned to a single time frame or a range of frames. Existing datasets have been annotated by small number of experts and the annotators tend to be constrained to specific definitions of segmentation boundaries. In this paper, we re-examine the an- notation problem. We crowdsource the problem to a large number of annotators and present an analysis of the results. Our preliminary study suggests that although there is a correlation to existing datasets, this form of annotations re- veals additional information such as stronger vs. weaker boundaries, gradual vs. sudden boundaries, and the difference in perception of boundaries between musicians and non-musicians. The study suggests that it could be worth re-defining certain aspects of the boundary identification in music structural segmentation problem with a broader definition."
Saturday, December 2 - Wednesday, December 6Abstract: Differential Regulation of Mammary Cancer Invasivity due to Matrix Stiffness and Oncogenic Mutation C.M. Plunkett1, A. Kumar1, J.K. Placone1, J. Yang2, A.J. Engler1; 1Bioengineering , University of California San Diego , La Jolla , CA, 2Pharmacology , University of California San Diego , La Jolla , CA Mammary epithelial cells (MECs) form polarized 3D structures in vivo, i.e. acini, which can be mimicked in 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) cultures in vitro. Results from the past decade indicate that normal MECs are highly responsive to matrix stiffness, undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with increasing stiffness. However mammary tumors are a complex mixture of MECs with varying phenotypes and mutations and the adjacent stroma ranges from normal mammary stiffness, ~150 Pascal (Pa), to high malignant and stiff, ~5700 Pa. Thus we sought to understand how specific isogenic variants change MEC sensitivity to matrix stiffness. Pre-malignant MCF10A, Ras-transformed MCF10AT, MCF10DCIS obtained from ductal carcinomas, and MCF10CA1 cells derived from in vivo MCF10AT cells were utilized to span this spectrum of accumulating mutations. Consistent with previous in vitro 3D culture models of variable stiffness, cells were cultured on collagen coated polyacrylamide gels with stiffness ranging from 150 to 5700 Pa. Though all cell lines were more proliferative and spread at 5700 Pa, only MCF10AT cells exhibited spread behavior at 150 Pa whereas other lines require 2- to 5- fold higher stiffness, e.g. MCF10CA1 and MCF10A, respectively. Nuclear localization of the EMT marker TWIST could be seen in all cell lines at 5700 Pa whereas in the softest niche, i.e. 150 Pa, only MCF10AT exhibited nuclear TWIST localization. Interestingly, MCF10AT cells displayed a uniquely pro-invasive phenotype regardless of stiffness despite lacking the additional mutations accumulated in MCF10DCIS and MCF10CA1 cell lines. Taken together, these data suggest a differential threshold to matrix stiffness on cellular phenotype that is largely dependent on the underlying oncogenic mutations present, a property that may be leveraged to better combat invasive breast cancer in humans.
Saturday, November 11 - Wednesday, November 15Abstract: Dependence of reward-based learning and decision-making on environmental statistics such as reward abundance and variance Making repeated choices among multiple options in a noisy reward environment, such as in the multi-armed bandit task, provides an opportunity to study how the brain learns about reward statistics based on sequential observations, as well how it makes choices that negotiates a trade-off between exploitation (selecting the arm currently perceived to be most rewarding) or exploration (selecting an arm associated with greater uncertainty). Here, we manipulate the statistics of the task environment, specifically average reward abundance and variance, to examine how they modulate human reward-based learning and decision-making strategy. We use a Bayesian model comparison and parameter fitting framework to characterize the nature of statistical representation for learning and decision-making, as well as the relative prioritization of immediate reward, cumulative reward, and pure information (related to curiosity), on an individual basis. We find that there is substantial variability across individuals in both the complexity and parameterization of their learning and decision-making strategies.
Thursday, November 9 - Sunday, November 12Abstract: Does Learning a New Language Lead to Unlearning of the Old Language? Danbi Ahn, Tamar H. Gollan, & Victor S. Ferreira People represent the structures of sentences in the languages that they know. This knowledge must be stable for successful communication. But, when learning another language that uses different structures, speakers must adjust their syntactic knowledge to fit the newly learned language. Does this also influence L1 syntactic knowledge? Here, we examine whether the newly acquired L2 knowledge can influence L1 structure knowledge. To do this, we compared Korean monolingual speakers living in Korea (who had little English exposure) with Korean-English bilingual speakers who acquired English late and were living in the US (and so had more English exposure) using acceptability judgment and sentence production tasks. Results suggest that acceptability and structural usage in L1 change after exposure to L2, but not in a way that matches L2 structures. Instead, L2 exposure appears to cause overall \'93noisier\'94 L1 production.
Erika-lizett Wilkins Y Martinez
Saturday, November 4 - Wednesday, November 8Abstract: Background: Underrepresented minority students are important in diversifying the physician workforce. Universities have developed programs to increase minority student representation in medical education. Objectives: Chapters of the Latino Medical Student Association (LMSA) and Student National Medical Association (SNMA) at UC San Diego hosted mock multiple mini-interviews (MMI) to simulate an MMI experience to prepare premedical applicants\'e2\'80\'94particularly underrepresented minorities, for medical school interviews. Methods: The mock MMI was launched in 2013. The most recent event in 2015 consisted of three interview stations eliciting participants\'e2\'80\'99 ability to think on their feet, critically appraise information, communicate their ideas, and demonstrate they have considered issues important to the medical profession. Premedical students were paired with medical student interviewers and received feedback. Following the event, participants were asked to complete questionnaires. Results: Thirty-four premedical students participated in the 2015 event. Demographics were self-reported with 19 female (56%) and 15 male participants (44%) and further distribution of 12 Latina/o (35%), four African-American/Black (12%), and one LGBTQ (3%) student(s). Scored on a scale from 1 (did not help at all) to 5 (helped greatly), participants\'e2\'80\'99 indicated their perception that: 1.) Participation in the MMI activity was helpful; 2.) Participation in the group activity was helpful; 3.) Overall participation in mock MMI event was helpful. Average score of the responses was 4.9, 4.0, and 4.8, respectively. Conclusion: Participant\'e2\'80\'99s perception of preparedness following mock MMI demonstrates a need for interview skill preparation. The mock MMI serves as a model to facilitate increased preparation for underrepresented minority students.
Friday, November 10 - Saturday, November 11Abstract: A Turn to Mud By Ned Randolph When Katrina churned into New Orleans, it swept over denuded swamps and concrete seawalls. It pushed up dredged canals into an urban bowl that had been a 300-year triumph of modernity. In this paper, I will explore how separating water from land and the erasure of mud, in effect, caused Hurricane Katrina, which continues today through coastal restoration efforts. The Mississippi River Delta became a concern of modernity in 1718 when Bienville claimed a muddy riverbank for King Louis XV\'e2\'80\'99s colonial stronghold. Letters to the crown document a dirty struggle as seasonal floods deluged non-native crops and storms breached surveyed levees. While the river beckoned settlement, the mud foiled it. Mud stymied efforts to govern a rational landscape and harvest the bounty that the river promised. Muddy streets. Muddy clothes. Surrounding swamps blamed for \'e2\'80\'9cmiasmic\'e2\'80\u157 diseases. Mud was infamous in New Orleans, motivating massive drainage programs to develop terra more suitable for Cypress Tupelo than concert halls. Three hundred years later, mud continues to foment an existential crisis, now through its scarcity. The muddy wetlands that buffer the city from storms and sustain an ecology of seafood, flora and migratory flyways are in dramatic retreat. While the Mighty Mississippi River operates as a cultural icon, mud fails to mark identity. It is classified as clay, muck, coarse sediment, ooze or peat. It hides within the discourse of the river. Yet it archives the nation\'e2\'80\'99s detritus flowing into the Gulf of Mexico to form a hypoxic \'e2\'80\'9cdead-zone\'e2\'80\u157 of algae larger than Connecticut. Mud is traded among commercial interests: dredged from the river channel and piped into beleaguered marshes; scooped from deep \'e2\'80\'9cborrow pits\'e2\'80\u157 into adjacent levees; churned in shallow wetlands by \'e2\'80\'9cprop washers\'e2\'80\u157 to open oil canals; and used to cool drill bits and stabilize bore holes. The history of Katrina is the history of this mud. Every intervention into the landscape to deepen the river, drain swamps, build levees and siphon oil, promised Katrina\'e2\'80\'99s arrival. This is my framework for considering how Louisiana\'e2\'80\'99s effort to address the loss of its coastal wetlands through a $50 billion, 50-year Master Plan continues modernity\'e2\'80\'99s legacy. Officials want to maintain the so-called \'e2\'80\'9cworking coast\'e2\'80\u157 not to save Louisiana, but bolster the extractive industries that monetize it. If Katrina emblematized the problem of mud\'e2\'80\'99s erasure, how might we understand the storm not as a singular event but as the context through which New Orleans is made possible. In Benjaminian terms, how might we understand Katrina as the Angel of History itself rather than the catastrophic event for which the angel has turned?
New Orleans, Louisiana
Monday, December 11 - Saturday, December 16Abstract: The rate of soil production has significant implications for elemental cycling modulated by geologic weathering and underpins agricultural and ecosystem stability. Long term soil production rates were first quantitatively measured more than two decades ago. Since that time many researchers have sought to understand the geomorphic factors controlling soil mantles in mountainous regions. The most prominent theory is that soil production speeds up as the profile is thinned by erosion, and slows down as soils thicken under stable conditions. This coupled dynamic has been observed in landscapes from semi-arid grasslands(1) to temperate montane rainforests(2). However, at some sites soil production rates have been found to be independent(3) or only weakly dependent(4) on the thickness of the overlaying soil mantle. Completely independent sites are those that are weathering limited by aridity or by erosion rate. At the sites exhibiting weak depth-dependent behavior soil production rates are high, despite thick soil mantles. There are no trends in climate, geology, or forest-cover that relate the weakly-dependent sites to each other. Why don\'e2\'80\'99t these sites display the self-arresting soil forming processes that characterize so many other study areas? We demonstrate that the sites where soil production rates are only weakly related to soil thickness share the commonality of being \'e2\'80\'9crelict\'e2\'80\uc0\u157 topography. Relict topography is the portion of transient landscapes whose hillslopes and channel gradients reflect the former base level position(5) . Our finding indicates that the soil depth in these places is likewise a function of boundary conditions predating the modern topography. This discovery allows us to investigate those boundary conditions and their effect on saprolite weathering and soil production.
Thursday, November 9 - Sunday, November 12Abstract: \'e2\'80\'9cWhen Legality Becomes Dissent: The Non-Profit Industrial Complex, Anti-Trump Resistance, and Dystopia\'e2\'80\u157 In the midst of widespread opposition to the government, the deferral to non-profits as agents of governmentality works within the ethos of privatization, positioning citizens as customers of government without public accountability, with the richest individuals and corporations holding ever more sway. I ask: if protecting constitutional rights is now in the realm of radical resistance, what does this shift means for those forms of dissent that work outside the law and question the very legitimacy of the U.S. as a nation-state? In equating resistance with the heavily funded work of multi-million dollar non-profits, we displace forms of dissent that might challenge the dramatic concentrations of wealth and power facilitated by a neoliberal capitalist society, the very conditions of possibility for Trump\'e2\'80\'99s presidency. I put my critique of the NPIC in conversation with the genre of \'e2\'80\'9cvisionary fiction,\'e2\'80\u157 a term developed by Walidah Imarisha and adrienne brown in Octavia\'e2\'80\'99s Brood: Science Fiction Stories from Social Justice Movements, meant to \'e2\'80\'9cdistinguish science fiction that has relevance toward building new, freer worlds from the mainstream strain of science fiction, which most often reinforces dominant narratives of power\'e2\'80\u157 (16). As a way to highlight aspects of the NPIC through the lens of science fiction, I begin each section of my paper with a reading of an excerpt from Octavia\'e2\'80\'99s Brood to highlight the NPIC as dystopic and suggest the need for speculative and imaginative thinking in this political moment, in place of the pragmatism and reformism that shape non-profit work.
Sunday, December 10 - Thursday, December 14Abstract: Demineralization method comparison for porcine femur cortical bone without fixation Bone\'e2\'80\'99s impressive mechanical properties stem from its intricate hierarchical structure from the nano- to macroscale. The main components of bone are collagen, calcium phosphate, and water. In order to gain a better understanding of the effect of collagen on the mechanical properties of bone, it is important to determine an efficient and effective method of demineralization that also preserves the collagen macromolecular organization. Previous studies have shown that 0.376 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 10% formic acid, 0.6 M hydrochloric acid are effective at removing mineral from bone and other mineralized collagen. However, most studies use bone powder instead of whole bone tissue or use fixatives on the bone, and many do not directly observe whether the macromolecular organization is intact. This study tested previously mentioned demineralization methods on porcine femur cortical bone and found that all methods could demineralize bone without damage to collagen if treatment timing is controlled (Figure 1). Demineralization was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Preservation of collagen macromolecular structure was observed using scanning electron microscopy.
Wednesday, January 3 - Monday, January 8Abstract: Animals underwent a period of rapid evolution around 500 million years ago, in what is now referred to as the Cambrian explosion. The majority of extant phyla descending from that period include organisms that possess the ability to biomineralize. Large datasets of transcriptomic and proteomic information have been generated to assess whether a conserved biomineralization toolkit exists among Metazoa. However, a purely bioinformatics approach is unable to reveal how a gene\'e2\'80\'99s function contributes to biomineralization. It is still not determined whether the gene networks controlling biomineralization in different taxa are conserved, or whether biomineralization has evolved independently in the metazoan lineage. To address this, we are using the calyptraeid gastropod, Crepidula, as a model organism to understand biomineralization among mollusks. Crepidula is amenable to genetic perturbation studies like CRISPR, morpholinos, and overexpression studies, allowing for functional perturbation of genes expressed in the shell gland. The cell lineages that give rise to the shell gland are known, and we have screened transcriptomes for genes involved in shell patterning and biomineralization in developing embryos and larvae of Crepidula fornicata. Expression of the genes within the shell gland may reveal putative roles in biomineralization. The data will be used to construct a biomineralization gene regulatory network in a gastropod mollusk, allowing for comparative studies to be taken among other calcifying members in the Metazoa.
Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA
Sunday, December 10 - Thursday, December 14Abstract: The fish scale has outstanding strength, toughness and flexibility that attract increasing research interest to mimic them as a bio-inspired body armour. Among all types of fish scales, elasmoid scale is the prevailing one that most of the fish living now has such type of scales. Coelacanth, as a \'e2\'80\'98living fossil', which rarely changed their morphology in last 400 million years, has \'e2\'80\'98primitive' type of elasmoid scales. Carp, one of the most common fish living now, has a typical \'e2\'80\'98modern' type of elasmoid scales. Although the overall structure of Coelacanth scales and Carp scales are similar, which has mineralized outer layer and laminated inner layer made of collagen fibers, there are lot of distinct difference between them, including the surface morphology, collagen fibers arrangement and mineralization. Among these differences, the most notable one is the collagen fiber arrangement and it significantly affects the mechanical adaptability of microstructure of the scales. We applied in situ synchrotron SAXS (small angle x-ray scattering) to characterize the collagen fibrils rotation and stretching when the tissue is in tension and analyzed the different mechanical adaptability mechanisms between the \'e2\'80\'98primitive' type of elasmoid scales and \'e2\'80\'98modern' elasmoid scales. These different deformations revealed the fundamental strengthening and toughening mechanisms of the different elasmoid scales and could provide better insight for designing advanced body-armor composite.
Saturday, November 18 - Tuesday, November 21Abstract: During the French mandate in Lebanon (ca. 1919-1946), the French Public Instruction Service, and later the Lebanese Ministry of Education, instituted various requirements for the opening of schools in the areas under French occupation. In its examination of the education and educational institutions in French mandate Lebanon, this paper puts these administrative requirements in conversation with the applications submitted by those girls\'e2\'80\'99 schools requesting authorization to operate. Using official correspondence, announcements, and bulletins, application documents (these include letters of intent and support, academic programs and curricula, lists of textbooks, professional and educational credentials of the proposed teachers and directors, and school building floorplans), and press sources, this paper uses official, archival documents to show that educational institutions, operating within the confines of official and administrative requirements, negotiated the colonialist aims of the French mandate and the national aims of the nascent Lebanese government for their own purposes. Such an analysis, in making use of traditional political archival documents in ways that are \'e2\'80\'9cagainst the grain,\'e2\'80\uc0\u157 illuminates the ways in which both colonial and national power were subverted, challenged, or propped up within official, administrative confines by local institutions. More specifically, by examining documents from girls\'e2\'80\'99 schools, this paper gets at the ways women and girls responded to both colonial and national expectations not only for curricular content, textbook usage, and the like, but also for women\'e2\'80\'99s and girls\'e2\'80\'99 role in the nascent Lebanese state. Ultimately, then, this study explores questions of the complex interplay among formal power, the various institutions that operate in colonial and national settings, anticolonialist and nationalist struggles, and gender.
San Diego, CA
Saturday, October 28 - Monday, October 30Abstract: California is home to 35% of all Hispanic Serving Institutions across the United States with a growing Chicanx/Latinx student population. Yet, the college completion rates across all sectors of postsecondary education, including HSIs, suggests the need for leadership, best practices and an assessment of \'93Latinx readiness and success\'94. This paper presents the trends of HSIs in California and results from a regional analysis of HSIs in San Diego, including a discussion of the unique opportunities that exist for targeted investment, infrastructure development and leadership. This paper represents a case study of HSIs in California, specifically the San Diego region, to explore the following research questions; 1. What is the institutional capacity of HSIs in San Diego County to serve their Latinx students? 2. What is the current status of academic achievement, transfer and college completion? 3. To what degree is a postgraduate pipeline being cultivated by the faculty in these HSIs?
Thursday, November 16 - Sunday, November 19Abstract: This panel brings together related examples of how art and culture are invaluable parts of systemic social change. The panelists works highlights the melding of these elements offering a rich contextual basis for framing our discussion of visual and social art as powerful political mediums crucial to the project of liberation. The panel will include 15-20 minute presentations about each paper followed by questions and answers from audience members. As Donald Trump ascended to U.S. Presidential office, a UC San Diego student radio program began asking how art, culture, and movement building against fascist policies, practices, and institutions might benefit from being situated within the Black Radical tradition. In conversation with media scholars including Franz Fanon, Harold Cruz and Christina Dunbar-Hester, we ask how historical resistance to anti-Blackness is an important lens for understanding and guiding specifics of current mass protest in the U.S. This paper reflects on process, specifically how framing and curation are co-constitutive and transformational in the context of documentation, analysis, and effecting concrete change.
Wednesday, November 29 - Sunday, December 3Abstract: How does a community respond, heal, and live ethically after decades of religiously-targeted violence? The Sikh community in India has suffered brutality and violence at the hands of police and the government. Outside of India, racism and xenophobia have led to discrimination and crimes against Sikhs in the diaspora. In this presentation, I explore how some Sikh communities engage in a practice of voluntary social work, seva, to transform community reputation and foster healing and wellbeing. Utilizing ethnographic and historical methods, I trace the trajectory of the meaning of seva and current practices of seva among Sikhs in India and the diaspora. I argue that Sikhs have reconstructed the meaning and revalued the practice of seva in order to alter the Sikh identity and reputation following decades of suffering. This rebranding occurs on the individual level through subjective experience and on the communal level through a shift in the public reputation of Sikhs. Through this process, seva promotes individual wellbeing and communal healing. Seva, a response by members of the Sikh community to violence, offers a model for healing and living ethically within the diverse, and often tumultuous, religious climate of India and of the diaspora in the West.\'c2\'a0
Friday, November 10 - Monday, November 13Abstract: Randomness is a difficult concept to pin down. We report experiments exploring laypeople\'e2\'80\'99s intuitions about randomness, focusing on the distinction between randomness as a property of a generating process or as a characteristic of the resulting product. Participants were asked to generate random 10-digit sequences of binary outcomes, and were either provided with a coin or not. We found that while the majority used the coin when it was available, a sizable minority did not. Furthermore, those who used the coin performed closer to statistical norms. Our findings suggest that laypeople construe randomness as both the process and the product.
Wednesday, November 15 - Monday, October 16Abstract: The session will mainly be covering the development of biofuel cell and printed batteries, from the basic concept, to strategies for incorporating stretchability in the design, to the optimization in performance and potential future research directions and commercialization market potentials for self-powered wearable electronics.
Saturday, October 28 - Wednesday, November 1Abstract: Title An urban fire department's experience with Left Ventricular Assist Device patients Study Objectives There has been little literature published describing the nature of prehospital care of patients with implanted left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). Patients sent home from the hospital with these devices pose a unique challenge to the prehospital medical provider. By describing the reasons for their presentations and interventions provided, we hope to contribute to a more complete understanding of complications of LVADs and which treatments are most appropriate prehospital. Methods This is a retrospective chart review of a level 1 academic center\'e2\'80\'99s LVAD patients transported by the city fire agency to the academic center\'e2\'80\'99s Emergency Department (ED) from January 2012 to December 2015. We sought to describe the frequency, 911 chief complaint, and interventions provided by the city fire agency. Medical records were queried for LVAD patients presenting to the ED during the study period. We extracted patient demographics (date of birth, sex, race, gender) and the list was then queried against the fire agency\'e2\'80\'99s database to collect the prehospital visits. Chief complaint, vital signs, abnormal physical exam findings, and interventions provided were obtained from the prehospital database. Results During the study period, 95 LVAD patients presented to the academic university ED. Of these visits, ten were brought in by the fire agency. Of the ten patients, the most common chief complaint was weakness (5/10) followed by chest pain (2/10). In the patients with weakness, one patient had a battery change, another had a stroke scale performed, and all five had their glucose measured. Only 3/5 patients with weakness were documented to have a known LVAD in place. Of note, there was one patient, whom the prehospital providers were unaware of the LVAD, who had shortness of breath and was found to be diaphoretic, had diminished lung sounds, and chest pain. This patient was given continuous positive airway pressure, nitroglycerin and aspirin per chest pain protocol. Another patient, with a known LVAD, received Lidocaine for a pacemaker firing issue. The crew was aware of the LVAD in 6/10 patients and the coordinator was contacted with all 6 patients. Conclusions Most LVAD patients presenting to the emergency department do not present by ambulance. Of patients that do interact with prehospital providers, the most common presenting symptom is weakness followed by chest pain. Given the LVAD requires coordination and consideration, a focus on how to improve prehospital awareness of LVADs is key. Further research in this area is needed.
Sunday, October 22 - Sunday, October 22Abstract: I examine two travel accounts \'e2\'80\'9cThe Voyage of Miles Philips\'e2\'80\uc0\u157 and \'e2\'80\'9cThe Travailes of Job Hortop\'e2\'80\u157 written by English pirates who accompanied Sir John Hawkins, the first English slave-trader, in his third voyage to the West Indies in 1567 and who were a year later castaway in Mexico. This essay explores how Mexico in the mid to late sixteenth-century becomes a geographical space of international intersections; its shores become the competitive and immersive land where two European imperial and religious enemies\'e2\'80\'94the English Protestants and the Spanish Catholic\'e2\'80\'94come together amidst what they consider a new and different people and culture: the Amerindians. These travel narratives open terrain for early modern scholars to study English culture alongside global encounters that depended on the experiential knowledge of travelers. They present subjects who dwelt in an environment of cultural and religious diversity, but who were also forced to inhabit adaptable cross-cultural bodies that would challenge their nationalist English identity. Miles Philips especially, due to his longer stay in New Spain, adopts a cross-cultural body\'e2\'80\'94that is to say, a body adaptable to play multiple cultural and religious roles to survive his captivity in this transnational space. My paper examines how these two English travel writers grapple to construct a literary English national identity for an English audience even though their experiences\'e2\'80\'94their narratives\'e2\'80\'94depend and were constructed in an emerging and merging global empire.
Sunday, January 21 - Thursday, January 25Abstract: The metabolic pathways fueling tumor growth have been well characterized, but the specific impact of transforming events on network topology and enzyme essentiality remains poorly understood. Importantly, cancer cells must reprogram redox pathways to support increased biosynthesis and withstand environmental stresses. To this end, we performed combinatorial CRISPR-Cas9 screens on a set of 51 carbohydrate metabolism genes that represent glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). This high-throughput methodology enabled systems-level interrogation of metabolic enzyme dispensability, interactions, and compensation within carbohydrate metabolism in two cell lines. The metabolic impact of specific combinatorial knockouts were validated using 13C and 2H isotope tracing. Quantitative analysis of fitness single knockout fitness in A549 and HeLa cells revealed a key role for the KEAP1-NRF2 signaling pathway in influencing the cellular response to knockout of oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzymes. Specifically, by augmenting NADPH regeneration and glutathione synthesis pathways, loss or mutation of KEAP1 facilitates growth by partially mitigating the deleterious effects of PPP gene knockout. Additionally, 2H tracing was used to understand how the PPP supports compartment-specific reprogramming of the redox network in response to routine hypoxic insults. These results together highlight the critical importance of the PPP in supporting redox homeostasis and demonstrate the need for further interrogation of redox metabolism at compartment- and network-level.
Wednesday, November 8 - Friday, November 10Abstract: Title: Making sense of real-time access to knowledge during sentence processing: What you know, what you don\'e2\'80\'99t know, and what you don\'e2\'80\'99t know you know Authors: Melissa Troyer and Marta Kutas Abstract: A fundamental part of understanding language involves dynamically connecting linguistic input (e.g., words) with neural knowledge representations. A well-known event-related brain potential\'e2\'80\'94the N400\'e2\'80\'94provides a window into the neurocognitive access to meaning via verbal input. N400 amplitude is sensitive to semantic relationships between an incoming word and the ongoing context, with decreased N400s reflecting greater ease of semantic access. For example, a word\'e2\'80\'99s predictability, operationalized as its offline cloze probability (i.e., the proportion of people who produce a specific word given a context), is strongly correlated with that word\'e2\'80\'99s mean N400 amplitude. Typically, researchers correlate mean cloze probabilities (from one group of participants) with mean ERP measures (in a separate group). The precise nature of the relationship between offline cloze probability and online predictability, especially within a given individual, however, remains an open question: does N400 amplitude index (1) all-or-nothing (pre-)activation of a word in context, or as some have suggested (2) graded/partial (pre-)activation of a word in context as a function of an individual\'e2\'80\'99s linguistic and world knowledge, among other factors? Because it is infeasible to estimate the entirety of someone\'e2\'80\'99s world knowledge in a typical laboratory experiment, we used the narrative world of Harry Potter. Undergraduate students more or less knowledgeable about Harry Potter read sentence pairs about the Harry Potter domain while we recorded EEG/ERPs. The final word of each pair was perfectly predictable from the context, assuming perfect knowledge of the Harry Potter stories. After each sentence pair, participants were asked to indicate whether they had known the stated information when they first read it or not. At the end of the ERP recording, we independently assessed the participants\'e2\'80\'99 knowledge of the Harry Potter domain via a trivia quiz (which determined their knowledge score, range: 11-38 questions out of 40). Unsurprisingly, high-knowledge individuals reported knowing more items than low-knowledge individuals. Also, as expected, across all participants, N400 amplitudes were dramatically reduced for items that individuals reported having known vs. not. More remarkably, knowledge scores were systematically related to N400 amplitudes, but this relationship was reliable only for items that participants reported not having known/remembered during the online task: compared to less-knowledgeable peers, individuals with greater knowledge exhibited smaller (more positive) N400 amplitudes for items they reported not knowing. One possible interpretation is that individuals with greater knowledge have a higher threshold for willingness to report what they know. We propose an alternative, albeit non-mutually-exclusive, interpretation: namely, that high-knowledge individuals may enjoy (or suffer from) access to broader and/or deeper semantic networks, implicitly accessing information related to the ongoing context in the absence of explicit recognition. Whatever the explanation, our results rule out accounts on which (pre-)activation of words in context is strictly all-or-nothing and suggest that by as early as 200 ms, fine-grained differences in the functional organization of individual-level knowledge may at least partially determine graded semantic activation during real-time sentence reading.
Mountain View, California
Monday, November 13 - Wednesday, November 15Abstract: We introduce the Fastron, a configuration space (C-space) model to be used as a proxy to kinematic-based collision detection. The Fastron allows iterative updates to account for a changing environment through a combination of a novel formulation of the kernel perceptron learning algorithm and an active learning strategy. Our simulations on a 7 degree-of-freedom arm indicate that proxy collision checks may be performed at least 2 times faster than an efficient polyhedral collision checker and at least 8 times faster than an efficient high-precision collision checker. The Fastron model provides conservative collision status predictions by padding C-space obstacles, and proxy collision checking time does not scale poorly as the number of workspace obstacles increases. All results were achieved without GPU acceleration or parallel computing.
Sunday, November 26 - Friday, December 1Abstract: The role of non-stoichiometry in a hierarchically structured WO3-x electrode, constituted from nanoscale fuzziness as well as microscale wire morphology, on the photoelectrochemical response is investigated. The particular role of the metal oxidation state and related non-stoichiometry is significantly enhancing the photoelectrochemical (PEC) response in the oxidation of water through the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Here, we consider tungsten oxide as an example. we also consider the role of a unique fuzzy surface coupled with micro-wire morphology specifically induced through helium plasma bombardment of metallic tungsten substrates, in promoting such superior photoresponse. We studied the role of non-stoichiometry in WO3-x by varying x through diverse thermal oxidation. It was concluded, based on detailed structural and electrochemical characterization, that there is an optimal value of x for enhanced photocurrents. Through such optimization, we observed a large photocurrent density that was relatively stable over more than 110 hours \'e2\'80\'93 and is among the highest reported values to date for tungsten oxides. Furthermore, we interpret such results through equivalent circuit models considering the charge transfer resistance that influences the current density as well as capacitance that monitors the extent of charge storage and the relative roles of oxygen vacancies and hole carriers responsible for the photoelectrochemical character. It has been well recognized that enhancing OER efficiency could usher in a new paradigm in the harness of solar radiation and energy utilization. Our experiments and related analyses offer several ideas and principles to overcome the challenges to increasing such efficiency. Our findings, in addition to marking new scientific territory related to defect engineering would enable crucial insights into electrode design for electrochemical systems and solar energy harness. Through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies, the relative amounts of the various oxidation states of the constituent W are probed with respect to the observed response. It is concluded that an intermediate/optimal number of vacancies, yielding a W6+/ (W5+ + W4+) ratio of around 2, would be beneficial for increasing the photocurrent. It is posited that defect engineering combined with optimized band structure modulation could be used for enhanced photocurrent density as well as electrode stability. The work would help considerably elucidate the role of defects as well as charge carriers for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) efficiency increase.
New Orleans, Louisiana
Thursday, January 4 - Saturday, January 6Abstract: Abstract: Why does the International Criminal Court choose to prosecute certain cases and not others? There are many egregious human rights violations around the world the International Criminal Court (ICC) could investigate and prosecute, but they only have prosecuted a handful. The Court has attracted much criticism in recent years for only prosecuting African individuals, with a Gambian official calling it the "International Caucasian Court.\'e2\'80\uc0\u157 The ICC has, however, begun looking into other situations around the world, including Colombia and Afghanistan, but these situations have yet to progress through to investigation and individual prosecutions. I argue that information has a central role in the Court\'e2\'80\'99s process and states have the potential to block the court\'e2\'80\'99s information-gathering activities. States\'e2\'80\'99 interests, then, help explain the movement of situations through to investigation and prosecutions. Key variables- state or UNSC referral, ICC neighbors, and military alliances- can help explain these selection processes. Using a variety of empirical approaches, I find weak, initial support for this theory but am unable to discredit alternative theories (particularly the African bias) and identity any causal mechanisms.
Thursday, January 11 - Saturday, January 13Abstract: This paper challenges a common dogma of the literature on forgiveness: that the standing to forgive is limited to victims. Attacks on third-party forgiveness generally come in two forms. One form of attack suggests that it follows from the nature of forgiveness that third-party forgiveness is impossible. Another form of attack suggests that although third-party forgiveness is possible, it is always improper or morally inappropriate for third parties to forgive. I argue against both of these claims; third-party forgiveness is possible, and in some cases it is morally appropriate for third parties to forgive (or refuse to forgive) wrongdoers for crimes done to victims. I also propose an explanation of third parties\'e2\'80\'99 standing to forgive: third parties have the standing to forgive when it is appropriate for them to take wrongs done to victims \'e2\'80\'98personally\'e2\'80\'99. While \'e2\'80\'98taking a wrong personally\'e2\'80\'99 does not require seeing oneself as a victim, it typically does require being in some form of personal relationship with victims. Thus, while the standing to forgive is not grounded exclusively in having been wronged, the prerogative to forgive is normally limited to victims and their loved ones.
Thursday, November 9 - Sunday, November 12Abstract: Narratives about Japanese female emigrants expose the patriarchal discourses that travel with these women moving from Japan to the Americas. These representations, however, overlook the role of emigration in Meiji Japan\'e2\'80\'99s empire-building projects centered on hegemonic ideologies about Japanese ethnic exceptionalism. Comparing Hayashi Ise\'e2\'80\'99s Japanese short story \'e2\'80\'9cNatsuyo\'e2\'80\uc0\u157 to Patsy Sumie Saiki\'e2\'80\'99s American story \'e2\'80\'9cA Letter to a Daughter,\'e2\'80\u157 I examine how the diction and imagery in both works construct conceptualizations of Japanese migration to Brazil and the United States that include female experiences. The first text illustrates a Japanese housewife migrating from Japan to Brazil in the 1920s after her husband has an affair with their maid. The second tells the story of a first-generation Japanese immigrant woman\'e2\'80\'99s hardship living in Hawaii as detailed in a letter to her oldest daughter. Both works provide representations that emphasize the suffering of these female migrants on the social margins that echo traditional male-dominated literary depictions of Japanese women. However, I argue that the focus on issues of gender obscures the Japanese state\'e2\'80\'99s racialized ideologies during this period of early immigration to the Americas. The hardship both female characters endure results from not only their disadvantaged positions as women in a patriarchal society, but also Japan\'e2\'80\'99s expectations that its emigrants contribute to strengthening the nation by learning Western practices and gaining influence in that region of the world. The state specifically targeted the working class to confront the difficulties of migration, while maintaining its loyalty to Japan and embodying the Japanese spirit of perseverance. I look at the subtle insertions of dominant discourses about Japanese ethnicity in the stories that speak to the intersection of gender hierarchy and ethnic hegemony and the ways in which Japanese female emigrants participated in Japan\'e2\'80\'99s imperialist projects in the Meiji era.
New Orleans, Louisiana
Monday, December 11 - Friday, December 15Abstract: Since 1964, an academic lineage, including Robert Dubois and three of his students, has been collecting nearly 6000 directional archaeomagnetic samples from sites all over the world with about 4000 samples coming from within the \'e2\'80\'9cFour Corners\'e2\'80\uc0\u157 region of the American Southwest (NM, AZ, UT, CO). Only a small fraction of the results have been published and, when published, typically only at the sample average level within hard-to-access archaeological reports. Fortunately, nearly all the stepwise alternating field measurement data and oriented specimens still exist within four collections. The goal of this data recovery project is to digitize, reanalyze using principle component analysis (where possible), complete the demagnetization where appropriate and publish the results, using the MagIC data base to archive measurement level results. Additionally, three secular variation (SV) models for the \'e2\'80\'9cFour Corners\'e2\'80\u157 region have been developed using small and differently selected subsets of the 4000 samples. The details of these models do not agree with each other, but have a few first order similarities. The differing approaches to selection results in ambiguity in their reliability. As such, the final goal of this project is to develop a new, robust, SV model for the region using only the highest quality data with independent geochronology. As of yet, all the measurement-level data for the samples within the Dubois collection have been scanned. Efforts are ongoing to digitize the scanned printouts and handwritten logs into a usable format. Currently, all of the location and geochronological data and about half of the measurement-level magnetic data have been digitized. The combined data from two of the four data collections have been analyzed and subjected to quality thresholds using PmagGUI (Tauxe et al. 2016). The resulting interpretations have been sorted into three bins based on quality. 1) Samples that meet all the quality thresholds. 2) Samples that do not meet the quality thresholds. 3) Potentially quality samples that would benefit from further demagnetization. Similar analyses will be conducted on the estimated 2000 samples within the remaining two collections.
Tuesday, November 7 - Saturday, November 11Abstract: Prolonged Exposure therapy (PE) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, veterans dropout from PE at high rates. The current study utilized quantitative and qualitative data from an ongoing variable length study comparing PE delivered via three different delivery modalities. Data from 157 veterans were examined for factors associated with dropout. Forty-eight percent of veterans in the study (n = 75) dropped out of PE. The most common times for dropout were between randomization and session 1 (17%) and after the first imaginal exposure (17%). Treatment completers and dropouts did not significantly differ on baseline demographic or clinical variables (e.g., age, PTSD or depression symptoms, perceived stigma or barriers to care, credibility of PE, or willingness to use PE). Sex was significantly associated with dropout; 52% of males dropped out of therapy compared to 35% of females (\'cf\'87\'c2\'b2 = 3.75, df = 1, p = .04). Veterans\'e2\'80\'99 self-reported reasons for dropping of therapy included relocation, scheduling difficulties, dissatisfaction with PE, symptom increases during PE, health problems, competing demands, and lack of privacy. Future analyses will examine differences in dropout rates between delivery modalities and will examine process variables as predictors of dropout; clinical implications will be discussed.
Sunday, November 26 - Friday, December 1Abstract: Direct Thermal Probing of Quenched Radiation of Polar Dielectric Thin Ribbons Polar dielectric materials support surface phonon polariton (SPhP) and exhibit interesting optical properties in the infrared (IR) regime, which can be utilized for promising heat management applications, such as radiative cooling and solar thermal energy harvesting. It is well known that the IR optical properties of polar dielectric nanostructures would be significantly altered from their bulk counterparts, as the sizes are smaller than the dominant thermal wavelength (~ 10 micron at 300K) and the skin depth (hundreds of nanometer). For example, it was predicted by Golyk et al. (Phys. Rev. E 85, 046603 (2012)) that the radiation of polar dielectric nanostructures is significantly quenched. However, the common optical methods to measure the IR properties, such as spectral absorptance and the emittance measurements, would be challenging due to the transparency and the small size (smaller than the diffraction limit) of the nanostructures. Therefore, there is a growing need to develop precise and direct measurements of infrared thermal properties of polar dielectric nanostructures for in-depth study of their interaction with light and the properties of SPhP. Here we demonstrate a direct thermal approach to measure the emissivity of low-dimensional polar dielectric materials in the IR regime. By measuring the length dependent thermal transport properties in thin ribbons, we can readily extract the radiation heat transfer coefficient through a fin model. To eliminate the potential impact of thermal contact resistance, the nanostructures are monolithically integrated with the thermal reservoirs by employing a microfabrication process. We have demonstrated this technique on SiO2 ribbons with ~100 nm thickness, and shown that the effective emissivity of the ribbons is significantly lower than that of bulk SiO2 (~0.9 at 300 K). We will also discuss the effects of the ribbon geometry and the temperature on the IR emission properties.
Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA
Sunday, December 10 - Thursday, December 14Abstract: Feathers are lightweight, flexible, strong, and spring-like, facilitating a bird\'e2\'80\'99s ability to fly. Flight feathers are composed entirely of \'ce\'b2-keratin and possess a tiered hierarchical structure consisting of a main shaft and vane; the shaft maintains the majority of the feather\'e2\'80\'99s stiffness and provides a guide from which the vane branches to capture air. Because feathers are dead tissues usually replaced once a year, maintenance of their structure is extremely important for bird survival. In this research we investigate hydration as a method of strength recovery of the damaged feather shaft. This is experimentally examined through cyclical four-point bending tests of Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) feather shafts with a hydration step, as well as characterization by optical microscopy, SEM, and TEM. A model of the feather\'e2\'80\'99s shape memory and strength recovery mechanism is proposed. The unique behaviour of the feather shaft could lead to the synthesis of innovative bioinspired shape memory polymer composites. This research is funded by AFOSR MURI (AFOSR-FA9550-15-1-0009).
Sunday, November 26 - Friday, December 1Abstract: Light-responsive nanocarriers may serve as versatile tools to control the release of encapsulated drugs or imaging agents. In order to utilize light-responsive nanocarriers in vivo, they must respond to electromagnetic radiation that can harmlessly penetrate tissue. Currently, the majority of photochemical systems do not meet these requirements as they utilize UV-light activation, which can damage tissue. Other systems employ near-infrared (NIR) light, which requires an inefficient two-photon excitation approach. In this research, a new visible light-responsive material was polymerized by using a dinitro derivative of bisstyrylthiophene. The polymer chromophore utilizes the o-nitrobenzyl photocleavage by absorbing in the biobenign violet-blue visible light range. Based on these excellent properties, the polymer displays practicality as a photodegradable nanocarrier. The polymer was formulated into nanoparticles and release studies of bioactive molecules was performed to further assess it's ability as a drug delivery vehicle.
Dallas, TX, USA
Sunday, November 12 - Wednesday, November 15Abstract: ABSTRACT Although the seismic compression of sands in dry and saturated conditions have been studied extensively, the seismic compression of unsaturated sands still needs further research to make reliable predictions. The approach proposed in this study considers the impact of unsaturated conditions on seismic compression by varying the pore fluid bulk modulus in the UBCSAND constitutive model and by considering the impact of unsaturated conditions on the effective stress. The modified constitutive model was used to predict the response of an unsaturated sand during cyclic loading representative of a cyclic simple shear test. Results from the model reflect the softening expected during an increase in degree of saturation, as well as a reduction in the amount of volumetric strain due to the change in compressibility of the pore fluid.
Saturday, December 9 - Tuesday, December 12Abstract: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are genetically complex diseases that require multiple mutations during disease development. Acquisition of somatic mutations results in clonal diversity and different responses to therapy. Genes encoding the spliceosomal proteins SRSF2, SF3B1, U2AF1, and ZRSR2 are frequently mutated in MDS, together affecting around 60% of patients. SRSF2 mutations are found in 10-13% of MDS patients and almost always present as heterozygous missense mutations. Several patient studies have shown that SRSF2 mutations are closely associated with RUNX1, ASXL1, IDH1, and IDH2 mutations. RUNX1 is an important transcription factor for hematopoiesis and mutations of\'c2\'a0RUNX1\'c2\'a0are detected in 10-15% of MDS. Although RUNX1 is one of the most frequently co-mutated genes with SRSF2 in MDS patients, it remains unknown how this combination of genetic alterations affect hematopoiesis. Here we hypothesize that RUNX1 and SRSF2 mutations cooperate in MDS development and explored this biologically in vivo. To investigate whether the coexistence of SRSF2 mutation and RUNX1 deficiency could impair hematopoiesis in vivo, we utilized previously reported Mx1-Cre based conditional knock-in Srsf2-P95H mutation (P95H/+) mice (which confers an MDS phenotype), and Mx1-Cre based Runx1 conditional knockout mice (Runx1 f/f) (which demonstrates a mild myeloproliferative phenotype). We crossed these two strains to establish a new mouse model (Srsf2 P95H/+ Runx1 f/f Mx1-Cre). To determine whether the phenotypic effects from the mutations are hematopoietic cell-intrinsic manner, we performed non-competitive bone marrow transplantation experiments by transplanting mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells collected from\'c2\'a0Mx1-Cre, Runx1 f/f Mx1-Cre, Srsf2 P95H/+ Mx1-Cre, and Srsf2 P95H/+ Runx1 f/f Mx1-Cre mice into lethally irradiated recipients. Four weeks after transplantation, we induced Cre expression by pIpC injection. RUNX1 loss and SRSF2 P95H together altered multi-lineage hematopoiesis in mice. Double mutant mice showed MDS features including severe leukopenia in multiple lineages, mild anemia, mild thrombocytopenia, and dysplastic morphology, such as hyposegmented/hypersegmented neutrophils and red blood cells with Howell-Jolly bodies in peripheral blood. Double mutant mice also displayed more dramatic skewing to the myeloid lineage at expense of the B cell lineage when compared to single mutant mice. Flow cytometric analysis of the peripheral blood cell lineages revealed reduced B cell percentages (Mean of B220+ percentage Mx1-Cre: 51.6%, Runx1 f/f Mx1-Cre: 40.5%, Srsf2 P95H/+ Mx1-Cre: 38.6%, Srsf2 P95H/+ Runx1 f/f Mx1-Cre:20%, N = 7-12 each genotype, 28 weeks after bone marrow transplantation) and increased myeloid percentages (Mean of CD11b+ percentage: 20.1%, 24.3%, 18.9%, 35.5% respectively). At 20-weeks post transplantation, we analyzed the spleen and bone marrow compartments of the mice. In the spleen, we found the same enhanced skewing from B-cells to myeloid lineage as in the peripheral blood compartment. However, in the bone marrow, single and double deficiency mice both demonstrated similar decreases in B cell percentage. To evaluate stem and progenitor function in vivo, we performed competitive bone marrow transplantation. We mixed CD45.1 bone marrow and CD45.2 (Mx1-Cre, Runx1 f/f Mx1-Cre, Srsf2 P95H/+ Mx1-Cre, Srsf2 P95H/+ Runx1 f/f Mx1-Cre) bone marrow in a 1:1 ratio, transplanted to lethally irradiated recipients, and injected pIpC 4 weeks after transplantation. The repopulation assays showed that SRSF2 P95H with RUNX1 deficiency confer a competitive disadvantage. Our findings from these mouse models indicate that RUNX1 deficiency and SRSF2 P95H mutation together impair multi-lineage hematopoiesis and exacerbate disease phenotypes caused by SRSF2 P95H mutation.
Thursday, January 4 - Sunday, January 7Abstract: During both the Republican era and the People's Republic of China, governments labelled religious practices outside the official institutionalized religions as \'e2\'80\'9csuperstition\'e2\'80\uc0\u157 . In the PRC, the Communist Party labelled major superstitious activities with mass participation and huge social impacts as \'e2\'80\'9cmass superstitious incident\'e2\'80\u157 . In contrast to the maturity of scholarly knowledge on all these institutionalized religious activities, historians know very little about \'e2\'80\'9cmass superstition\'e2\'80\u157 . My project examines a mass healing incident with more than fifty thousand participants in rural China in 1953. In this paper, I argue that rural mass superstition was, in nature, a religious festival where healing practice became pilgrimage that could bolster commercial activities effectively. Rural residents who were abandoned by the new government, especially petty merchants, were the main \'e2\'80\'9cadvertisers\'e2\'80\u157 of mass superstition. The predicaments the rural residents were facing were primarily caused by land reform and state-sanctioned medical infrastructure building in rural areas. The newly established Communist regime was not able to meet the economic and medical needs of the rural residents. More importantly, the new government was unable to destroy the old moral and religious values without fulfilling the practical needs of the rural population and establishing valid alternative values, which would ultimately undermine the legitimacy of the new government.